Home | Introduction | Download e-book | Conference 2001 | Special thanks | The note of law | Contact
Articles: Poland | Małopolska | Mazowsze | Ziemia Łęczycka | Żuławy | Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska | Ziemia Kwidzyńska | Ziemia Walichnowska | Ziemia Sieradzka | Ziemia Wieluńska
Articles --> Ziemia Kwidzyńska


In the landscape of the Kwidzyn Lowland, there dominate combined homesteads. Their width ranged from 8.5 to 11 m. The length of the residential part was equal to 10 - 17 m, and in total even up to 40 m. Most of them have an even height of the ridge and an even width of particular heights. One of the few buildings, where the utility part has a higher ridge, which is also moved aside from the ridge axis of the residential part, is Mątowskie Pastwiska 30 (il. 23, 24, 25). However, it may have been a result of a later refurbishment74. Another homestead known to us, built on a cross-shaped plan, in the same village, had a higher ridge of the barn itself (il. 26,27)75. Here, it could also have taken place as a result of refurbishment of the other wing of the barn76.
Here, it?s worth to have a look at the layout of particular parts. Mątowskie Pastwiska 30 is an example of the simplest variant of an angle-shaped homestead. The barn is attached with its gable wall to the cowshed which is situated under one roof with the residential part. A similar layout was applied in the no longer existing homestead of Janowo (il. 9) and, most probably, the original versions of homesteads Jarzębina 12 (il. 19e, 28) and Barcice 20 (il. 29, 30). A somewhat different layout can be seen in Ediger's homestead of Zwanzigerweide (il. 20). That incomplete cross-shaped layout was created by way of adding a barn to the cowshed on one side, and a small pigsty on the other77.
Another issue which is worth attention is also a certain number of identified homesteads with an arcaded extension78. All of them are linear homesteads. Unfortunately, only one of them has survived till our times: Kaniczki 4 (il. 31). The extension, being a tie-beam structure, is based on 4 posts. Originally, two more were supporting the beams at the longitudinal wall. The posts have outlines of the base and capital. Each of them is additionally reinforced by a pair of stiffening angle braces, which together create an arch. The beam on which the posts are based, also has a decorative profiling. It is only in the front wall that a pair of windows is situated. The no longer existing linear homestead of farmer Sidau of Wiśliny had a similar layout (il. 32, 33)79. The extension was supported by five posts, each with a pair of angle braces, similar in form to those at Kaniczki, but more robust. Here, too, a similar system of two additional posts at the wall was applied. In this case, there were also windows in the side walls. Another house of Wiśliny, belonging to farmer Steege, dated to 1792 (il. 34) was supported by four straight posts80. The extension did not extend too much beyond the roof slope. Only the front wall had windows.
Extensions made in a skeletal structure have a somewhat different character. The front wall of the extension made in Nehring's homestead at Olszanica was very decorative (il. 35). It was supported by five simple columns. Also the extension at farmer Porgan's at Olszanica was made as a skeletal structure (il.36). The structure, apart from the posts and spandrel beams, was reduced to angle braces only. A skeletal extension based on five posts was also there in Schulz's homestead at Pastwa (il. 37).
The tie beam extensions only had two openings in the gable wall, providing light, while skeletal extensions had two pairs of windows on both floors (il. 38). All of them were covered with a double-sloped roof situated perpendicularly to the main ridge, with the same height.
The evolution of this element, so characteristic of the Dutch settlement, led towards reduction of the length of the extension up to application of an indented extension (il. 39) or an extension in the roof slope only (il. 40).
The residential part façade was of a rather symmetric character. The big chamber was usually provided with light via two windows in the longitudinal wall and two windows in the gable wall. The most extended houses had longitudinal walls arranged in a four- or five- axial system. Gable walls, usually with one door opening, were generally three-axial. Additional windows were also situated in the roof slope, providing light to the attic.
At the end of the 19th century, an elbow wall started to appear, thanks to which the gradient of the roof slope considerably decreased. That element appeared first of all in detached houses. In one instance, such a solution appeared over the residential part of a linear homestead (il. 41).
It should be concluded then, that in the discussed area, most homesteads were of a linear type. An element which frequently appeared among them was an arcaded extension based on four or five posts. Also popular was an angle-shaped homestead. A cross-shaped layout was found, too, although not in its full form.

74 L. Stankiewicz podaje iż stodoła przebudowana został w 1790 r. Nie podano jednak źródła tej informacji. Zob. L. Stankiewicz, s. 534.
75 B. Schmidt, il. 101, s. 93.
76 Pierwsze posiada kalenicę równą wysokości części mieszkalnej i gospodarczej. Zob. Ibidem, il.103, s. 94. Nieco inaczej wyglądało to na Żuławach Wiślanych, gdzie zróżnicowanie wysokości kalenicy było dość częste. Zob. J. Domino, op. cit., s. 60.
77 B. Scmidt, il. 99, s. 92.
78 H. Wernicke, Bauernhauser..., ss. 1-40.
79 Ibidem, s. 19.
80 The date of completion was shown on a flag hung on the gable of the house . See Ibidem, p. 10.

Home | Introduction | Download e-book | Conference 2001 | Special thanks | The note of law | Contact
Articles: Poland | Małopolska | Mazowsze | Ziemia Łęczycka | Żuławy | Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska | Ziemia Kwidzyńska | Ziemia Walichnowska | Ziemia Sieradzka | Ziemia Wieluńska

Copyright 2005 © jerzyszalygin@wp.pl