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The residential part of a combined homestead always was constructed as a tie beam structure. The only case, where the wall has been built as a skeletal structure filled with brick is homestead Międzyłęż 30 (il. 42).
The base course was made of field stones on lime mortar, equalized on the top with a layer of brick. The ground beam was somewhat shorter but wider, connected in the corners with carpenter locks. The number of logs of which the wall was built depended on the time when the house was being built and on its dimensions. Buildings of the 18th century had from 5 to 8 of them. They were made of tree-halves, roughed out with an axe and a saw. Hence, on the external side, a wane was created81. The space between the logs was sealed with clay and lime82, thus attaining a form of white strips (il.43). In the 19th century, logs were fully cut mechanically, and their quantity in a wall could even reach 10 pieces (il.44). Particular elements were connected with wooden pegs (il.45), and in some cases with a slip feather, too.
Floors in the hall and sometimes in the kitchen were clad with ceramic tiles or simply with brick (il. 46, 47). In chambers, floors were covered with planks, usually connected with own feather. If there was a cellar beneath, it was additionally connected with the crosswise beams with wooden pegs (il. 48).
Floor joists were laid on a rafter plate. Rafters were connected directly with them (il. 49). In certain cases, an additional crosswise beam was laid on the protruding floor beams and rafters were based on it (il. 50,51). Thanks to such a move, rafters did not have to be positioned in the same place as the floor joists. That solution was characteristic for the 1st half of the 19th century.83
Elbow walls which appeared at the end of the 19th century were most frequently built in a planked skeletal structure. It also happened that they appeared in a tie beam structure.
The rafter frames of the oldest preserved examples have the simplest two-collar-beam form. Collar beams were connected with rafters with pegged overlaps in the form of a half-dove tail. In the 19th century solutions, stud rafter frames were popular. Here, an interesting example is the rafter framing of homestead Kaniczki 4. Originally, it was a collar beam type. At the end of the 19th century, in order to strengthen it (which could be connected with the switch to roof tiles) the rafter framing was supplemented with a very interesting solution: the longitudinal stud frame was additionally reinforced with a hanger with a ridge purlin and angle struts (il. 52)84. It often happened that rafters, on one side, were reinforced with longitudinal spandrel beams and wind beams. In case of the house for workers, the short wind beams only connected the two neighbouring rafters (il. 53).
Roofs were usually covered with cane (il. 12, 25, 35). Nowadays, such a roof cover doesn't exist anywhere. The ridge often was decorated with small sheaves of corn - sparrows or short poles - crosses (il. 54)85. In some cases, shingle was used86. Ceramic roofing started to be used at the end of the 19th century. The most popular was pantile, preserved on the prevailing number of buildings.
In conclusion, it is worth to devote a few words to the hearth and smoke exhaust facilities. As it has already been mentioned in the chapter devoted to the spatial and functional arrangements, in the homesteads, there were black kitchens with bottle chimneys. The oldest and, at the same time, the most archaic example of that solution in the whole area of Lower Vistula Valley, has been preserved in homestead M±towskie Pastwiska 30. The walls of the black kitchen, up to the height of the attic, were built of a field stone and partly of brick (il. 55). The bottle chimney itself has been built on the basis of four long perches connected on four sides with a pair of transverse strips wedged at the ends. Between them, probably longitudinal perches have been positioned, which used to be covered with clay (il. 56). On the outside, it is plastered. In the buildings dated to the 19th century, the form of the chimney does not change, except that it is, like the black kitchen, built in brick.

81 J. Tajchman, Propozycja systematyki i uporz±dkowania terminologii ciesielskich konstrukcji dachowych występuj±cych na terenie Polski od XIV do XX w. "Monunent" 2005, nr 2, s.10
82 In the later period, also a sawdust mass was used. See: H. Wernicke, Bauernhauser..., p. 9.
83 Apart from the house for workers in homestead M±towskie Pastwiska 30, such a layout can be found in homestead Bronisławowo 28 of 1830. In the Sartowicko-Nowska Lowland, such layouts were in the buildings M±tawy 28 of 1837 and M±tawy 54 of 1831. In Żuławy, such a layout was used in the houses of Peter Loewen. See: K. Soczewica, Die Häuser Peter Loewens im Werder und ihre denkmalpflegerische Problematik, [w:] Vermittlung von Dokumentationsmethoden an Baudenkmalen, Oldenburg 1997, s. 239.
84 A similar situation took place in the worker house at M±towskie Pastwiska, where the collar beams were additionally reinforced with iron clamps in the moment of laying the roof tiles.
85 W. Łęga only mentions straw when he discusses the roofing. See: W. Łęga, op. cit., p. 38. The available iconography seems, however, to show roof covered with cane.
86 Pokryty była nim np. obora w Kaniczkach. See: H. Wernicke, Bauernhauser..., s. 10.

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