Home | Introduction | Download e-book | Conference 2001 | Special thanks | The note of law | Contact
Articles: Poland | Małopolska | Mazowsze | Ziemia Łęczycka | Żuławy | Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska | Ziemia Kwidzyńska | Ziemia Walichnowska | Ziemia Sieradzka | Ziemia Wieluńska
Articles --> Ziemia Kwidzyńska


The catalogue of the Dutch settlement in Poland, initiated by creation of the website www. holland.org.pl steadily grows. The ever growing popularity of the history of the Dutch settlement, and in particular the awareness of continual loosing of the last material traces of the Dutch presence1, have induced preparation of the history of further regions: the Kwidzyn and Walichnowy Lowlands (il.1,2).
They are situated on the borderland of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship and the Pomeranian Voivodship. They are parts of the Tczew and Kwidzyn Poviats.
The Walichnowy Lowlands spreads on the left side of the Vistula which marks its eastern boundary. On the south, it begins over Gniew and Ciepłe manor farm. Its western boundary is set out by the national road E75, on the north it ends in the place Rybaki - near Tczew.
The Kwidzyn Lowlands, on the right side of the Vistula, spreads on the north of Grudziądz. The eastern boundary is outlined by the road leading through Sadlinki to Kwidzyn, then through Mareza to Ryjewo and Benowo. The northern part of the Lowlands is separated by Biała Góra, in which the Vistula connects with Nogat. Here, the area of Żuławy Wiślane (The Vistula Marshlands) begins, the place of the most intensive settlements action by the Dutch.
The time scope of the study is set out by the boundary of the preserved and known wooden objects - from the middle of the 18th century till the beginning of the 20th century. The history of the settlement will be presented as a whole, in order to understand the processes having an influence on the current landscape of the villages. The main part will analyze the layout of homesteads in a village, the layout of particular buildings within a homestead, form, spatial and functional arrangement and structure of residential and farm buildings.
The field studies of the villages were carried out partly by the employees of the Department of Architecture and Ethnographic Parks of the Maria Znamierowska-Prüffer Ethnographic Museum in Toruń in 2008, consisting of M. Prarat and E. Tyczyńska, and by the author himself in 2009 r.2. The catalogue of the Kwidzyn Lowlands (31 villages) and Walichnowy Lowlands (6 villages) includes the basic data concerning the settlements (hamlets) and the historical map of the villages in the scale of 1:25 000. In the places, where a wooden architecture has been found to be in a state allowing for an analysis, an object card including a photograph and a description has been added, with a plan of the basement in case of the most important one. In some cases, a separate description including a photograph has been prepared for cemeteries - those best preserved.
The state of studies of the area in question presents itself as a relatively rich one. Among the published sources, one should mention numerous illustrations and inventories providing also a lot of valuable information on the history of particular settlements3. One of the oldest works devoted to the history of villages is, of course, Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego [A Geographic Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland], quoted in almost all the volumes. The interest in the homestead architecture in the discussed area dates back to the beginning of the scientific preparation of catalogues of relics. That is just a proof of their high value perceived already in the beginning of the 20th century.4 The history of the region itself, taking into account the settlement, including the Mennonites, was developed by German researchers from the end of the 19th century.5. Certain information concerning that issue is provided by monographs devoted to towns in the region6. The most important ethnographic item is the work of W. Łęga, presenting many valuable examples of homesteads with plans of basements, no longer existing, nowadays7. In that period, also the work of E. Wernick is created, which is fully devoted to homesteads and inhabitants of the Vistula river lowlands8. He was also the author of later studies devoted to the history of the region9. More important post-war works include historical monographs of Kwidzyn10 and Sztum11. Again, in the recent years, several German-language studies devoted to the history of this land have been made12. An important study treating about the history of settlement is the work by K. Mikulski13. The early medieval roots of the hamlets is discussed by M. Kerner-Żuralska14. The specificity of the economic development of the lowlands can be better understood after studying of the works of A. Mączak and P. Szafran, although they concern the Gdańsk and Malbork Żuławy (Lowlands)15. The history of the Vistula River Valley, although perfunctorily, has been taken into account in the work devoted to the geography of the area16. Information about the Mennonites in the area is discussed by H. Wiebe17. The villages settled by them are also mentioned by K. Ciesielska18 and J. P. Klassen19. Recently, a number of academic texts and guides devoted to the Dutch settlement have appeared20. The village architecture itself has been partly presented in the form of a list of relics21. Single examples have been described in connection with the unrealized open-air ethnographic museum of homesteads in the Lower Vistula Valley22, or in the only, so far, monographic approach to the homesteads in that whole area by M. Warchoł23.
It must be, therefore, stated that the history of settlement, especially that of the Kwidzyn Lowlands, is well known in the literature. Considerably worse is the presentation of the homestead architecture, although shown in general studies, but having no separate, exhausting analysis.
At the end, the author wishes to thank to: Mr. Jerzy Szałygin for making it possible for the study to be made; to Mr. Hubert Czachowski for the possibility of using the materials of the Ethnographic Museum, for the possibility of using of the materials.
In conclusion, the author wishes to most cordially thank: to Mr. Jerzy Szałygin for making it possible for this study to be written; to Mr. Hubert Czachowski for the possibility of usage of the materials of the Ethnographic Museum in Toruń; and to dear colleagues: Alicja de Rosset, Łukasz Stawski and Robert Paszkowski for their assistance in obtaining of many of so valuable materials.

1 The basis of the settlement movement called "olęderski" [Archaic Polish adjective for "Dutch"] were Mennonites who came to the Republic in the 16th century. They were settled under a long-term lease privilege - emphyteusis. In the later period, Germans and Poles were coming to settle here under the same privilege. They together created the "olęderski" settlement. This study does not discuss the general development of the Dutch settlement in Poland. An exhaustive material can be found in other texts placed at www. holland.org.pl. There, one can also find the basic literature on the subject. The development of settlement under emphyteusis - a long-term lease - will be contained in the historical chapter.
2 All the photos used in the work have been made by the author.
3 Opis królewszczyzn w województwach chełmińskim, pomorskim i malborskim w roku 1664, wyd. J. Paczkowski, Fontes 32, TNT, Toruń 1938, s. 38, 142, 143, 324, 329; Lustracja województwa pomorskiego 1565, wyd. S. Choszowski, Gdańsk 1961, s. 80; Lustracja województw malborskiego i chełmińskiego 1570, wyd. S. Hoszowski, Gdańsk 1962, s. 65; Lustracja województw Prus Królewskich 1624, z fragmentami lustracji 1615 r., wyd. S. Hoszowski, Gdańsk 1967, s. 143; Lustracja województw Prus Królewskich 1765, Fontes 92, TNT, wyd. J. Dygała, t. 1, Toruń 2003, cz. 2, s. 110-118, 137.
4 B. Schmid, Die Bau-und Kunstdenkmäler der Prowinz Westpreussen, Bd. 3, H. 13, Kreis Stuhm, Danzig 1909, s. 324-328.
5 W. F. Schmitt, Geschichte des Stuhmer Kreises, Thorn 1868; M. Toeppen, Die Niederung bei Marienwerder. Eine historisch-chorogrphische Untersuchung mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Wiechselburg und Zantir, "Altpreussische Monatsschrift", Königsberg 1873, Bd. 10, s. 219-253; R. Flans, Geschichte Westpreussischer Güter, "Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Reg.-Bez. Marienwerder" H. 21, 1889, ss. 67-108; idem, Das ehemalige Amt Marienwerder, insonderheit die Amts-Niederung, "Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Reg.-Bez. Marienwerder? H. 34, 1896, ss. 50-99; Idem, Das ehemalige Amt Marienwerder, insonderheit die Amts-Niederung, "Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Reg.-Bez. Marienwerder? H. 35, 1897, ss. 1-60.
6 E. Wernicke, Marienwerder. Geschichte der Stadt., Marienwerder 1920;
7 W. Łęga, Ziemia malborska. Kultura ludowa, Toruń 1933.
8H. Wernicke, Bauernhauser der Marienwerder Niederung und die Geschichte ihren Bewohner, "Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Reg.-Bez. Marienwerder?, H. 50, 1912, ss. 1-40.
9 E. Wernicke, Kreis Marienwerder. Aus der Geschichte des Landkreises bis zum 19. Jahrhundert, Hamburg 1979
10 A. Lemański, W. Odyniec, J. Powierski, Dzieje wsi [w:] Kwidzyn. Z dziejów miasta i okolic, Olsztyn 1982, red. A. Wakara, s. 235-299; Kwidzyn. Dzieje miasta, pod red. K. Mikulskiego i J. Liguz, t. 1, Kwidzyn 2004.
11 W. Odyniec, R. Wapiński, K. Podolski, Ziemia sztumska, Gdynia 1968.
12 Heimat zwischen Weichsel, Nogat und Sorge. Ein Bildband über den Kreis Stuhm/ Westpreussen, Rottenburg 1982; Der Kreis Marienwerder/Wpr. Landgemeinden und Stadt Garnsee, Hamburg 1985; Stadt und Kreis Marienwerder/Westpreussen - Ein Bildband mit Motiven bis zum Jahre 1945, Braunschweig 1993.
13 K. Mikulski, Osadnictwo wiejskie woj. pomorskiego od poł. XVI do końca XVII wieku, Rocznik TNT, R. 86, Toruń 1994, z. 2
14 M. Kerner-Żuralska, Materiały do dziejów osadnictwa Pomezanii (pow. kwidzyński, iławski oraz część grudziądzkiego), w: Komunikaty Mazursko-Warmińskie, nr 2, 1964, ss. 150-167.
15 A. Mączak, Gospodarstwa chłopskie na Żuławach Malborskich w pocz. XVII w., Warszawa 1962; P. Szafran, Żuławy Gdańskie w XVII w., Gdańsk 1981.
16 Dolina Dolnej Wisły, red. B. Augustowski, Wroclaw-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk-Łódź 1982, ss. 283-300.
17 H. Wiebe, Das Siedlungswerk Niederländischer Mennoniten im Weichseltal zwischen Fordon und Weissenberg bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrh., Marburg/Lahn 1952, ss. 39-42.
18 K. Ciesielska, Osadnictwo "olęderskie" w Prusach Królewskich na Kujawach w świetle kontraktów osadniczych, "Studia i Materiały z dziejów Wielkopolski i Pomorza", t. 4, 1958, ss. 219-256.
19 P. J. Klassen, Ojczyzna dla przybyszów. Wprowadzenie do historii menonitów w Polsce i Prusach, Warszawa 2002.
20 R. Klim, Ślady mennonitów w Dolinie Kwidzyńskiej, Tczew 1993; H. Michalik, M. Dymek, K. Michalik, Wędrówki śladami mennonitów w Dolinie Kwidzyńskiej, [w:] Zeszyty Kwidzyńskie, nr 10, Kwidzyn 2003; A. Barganowski, H. Michalik, Przewodnik po Powiślu. Powiat Kwidzyński 2007
21 J. Stankiewicz, Zabytki budownictwa i architektury na Żuławach, [w:] "Rocznik Gdański", t. XV, XVI, Gdańsk 1956/1957, ss. 511-542; Spis zabytków architektury i budownictwa, red. K. Malinowski, Biblioteka Muzealnictwa i Ochrony Zabytków, seria A, t. 1, Warszawa 1964; Zabytki architektury i budownictwa w Polsce, " Biblioteka Muzealnictwa i Ochrony Zabytków", seria A, t. 7, Warszawa 1972, z. 3.
22 J. Święch, R. Tubaja, Problematyka mniejszości narodowych i etnicznych w polskich muzeach skansenowskich [w:] "Biuletyn Stowarzyszenia Muzeów na Wolnym Powietrzu w Polsce", 2000, nr 2, ss. 7-15; R. Tubaja, Muzea etnograficzne typu skansenowskiego na Pomorzu. Koncepcje i realizacja [w:] "Biuletyn Stowarzyszenia Muzeów na Wolnym Powietrzu w Polsce", 2002, nr 5, ss.19-29; Idem, Park Etnograficzny w Kaszczorku. Oddział Muzeum Etnograficznego w Toruniu, "Biuletyn Stowarzyszenia Muzeów na Wolnym Powietrzu w Polsce" 2003, nr 6, ss. 97-107.
23 M. Warchoł, Budownictwo olęderskie nad środkową i dolną Wisłą, "Przegląd Regionalny", R. 2, 1996-1997, nr 1, ss. 51-80.

Home | Introduction | Download e-book | Conference 2001 | Special thanks | The note of law | Contact
Articles: Poland | Małopolska | Mazowsze | Ziemia Łęczycka | Żuławy | Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska | Ziemia Kwidzyńska | Ziemia Walichnowska | Ziemia Sieradzka | Ziemia Wieluńska

Copyright 2005 © jerzyszalygin@wp.pl