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History of Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska


According to the physical-geographical division, Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska is located in the Lower Vistula Valley, in Kotlina Grudziądzka (Grudziądzka Basin) mesoregion[1].

It stretches from the village of Sartowice in the south to the foot of Nowe in the north. In the east it borders on the Vistula and in the west it ends with a morainic plateau with river terraces. The lowland is on average 3km wide; near Komorsk it spreads to c.a. 6km of width.

This terrain is located in the area where the original outflow of waters changed its direction from the south-west to the south-east at the end of the maritime phase of the Vistula glaciation.

It includes end moraines composed of moraine clay and non-stratified sands and gravels. River terraces preserved in this area are the result of different valley development stages, related to withdrawal of the ice-sheet. The slope of the horst in Górna Grupa, 60 to 50 meters above the sea level, belongs to the best preserved. It is composed of gravels and fluvioglacial sands covered with a thin layer of river sands.

The largest area is occupied by a flood plain, c.a. 28 to 15 meters above the sea level. It is flat with small concavities occurring near the steep edges of upland terraces. A depression of this kind can be found in Sartowice Dolne.

The plain is composed of sediments of different fractions, from gravels and sands to loams and alleviation containing organic substances. They are accompanied by glacial forms, created by melting of dead ice blocks. These forms occur in the Mątawa valley between the Górna Grupa horst and the morainic plateau.


The basis for durable development of villages in the early Medieval Ages period was the creation of permanent political and administrative structures. At the end of the 10th century Mieszko I conquered Pomorze Nadwiślańskie (the Vistula Pomerania)[2]. In the 12th century Świecko and then Nowe castellanies were established. It was also a period when permanent church organisation was created. In 1124 the Włocławek diocese was founded, covering the majority of Pomorze Gdańskie (the Gdansk Pomerania) and Kujawy regions. On the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries the network of parishes in Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska included Bzowo and Komórsk[3].

On the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries the knights' lands included: Wielki Lubień, Bratwin and Sartowice (a customs house on the Vistula)[4]. Mały Komórsk and Wielki Komórsk belonged to the Włocławek diocese.

In 1309 this land was conquered by the Teutonic Order. The conquest of Świecie ended the conquest of Pomorze Gdańskie, which would remain in hands of the Order for a century and a half. In 1320 a komturia in Świecie was founded. It stretched to the village of Michale, covering its southern part. The northern part of the village belonged to the Grudziądz komturia, together with Wielki Lubień, Bzowo, Mały Komórsk and Wielki Komórsk. The Pokrzywin komturia included Zajączkowo and Mątawy. Grupa and Marzy belonged to the Nowe district, part of the Tczewskie voivodeship.

The Teutonic Order took over the dukes' lands, including then Sartowice Dolne, Lubień Wielki, Lubień Mały, Bzowo, Osiek, Mątawy and Zajączkowo. The Order possessed also manor farms in Bratwin, Stwolno Niemieckie and Wielkie Zajączkowo. The knights' villages, prevailing in this area, included Sartowice Górne, Stwolno Niemieckie, Stwolno Polskie, Michale, Grupa and Marzy. The bishop of Włocławek owned the 'komorski key'.


Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska became part of the Polish state by virtue of the second Toruń treaty. This region experienced a relatively long period of stabilisation and peaceful existence till the conflict with Sweden that lasted from 1626 to 1660. Marches of troops, military contributions and plunders caused important damages in the region of Świecie and Nowe. Till the first partition of Poland this area was several times in the centre of military operations - not only the 'Swedish flood' but also the Northern War and the War of Seven Years.

The creation of Royal Prussia and its submission to the Polish authority became the basis for a new administrative division[5].

The Sartowicko-Nowska land, located in the south-eastern part of the new Pomorskie voivodeship was divided into two separate poviats, corresponding to the borders of Świecie komturia and Nowe district in the Tczewskie voivodeship.

In terms of church administration this region was still subordinated to the Włocławek diocese, constituting part of the Pomorski archdeaconry, the Świecie decanate and the Nowe decanate. The Świecie decanate was divided into two parishes: Święte and Michale[6]. The Nowe decanate included parishes in Bzowo, Komórsk and Wielki Lubień. In 1586, a Mennonite house of prayer was established in Mątawy[7].

At this time, royal lands within the borders of the Świecie starosty included Stwolno Polskie, Stwolno Niemieckie, and Bratwin. Wielki Lubień, Mały Lubień, Osiek and Bzowo belonged to the Grudziądz starosty, and Zajączkowo Wielkie to the Rogozin starosty. Some of the royal villages were also leased[8]. Gentry estates included Grupa, Marzy, Michale and Sartowice[9]. In the Nowe poviat the church owned the villages of Wielki Komórsk and Mały Komórsk.

The development of villages in this period was characterised by an important share of royal estates, the existence of large peasant homesteads and a small number of manor farms. Those farms were obliged to pay rent and tribute in kind. The terrains near the Vistula, although used, were not fully exploited due to difficulties with farming in periodically flooded areas. The best solution was to bring settlers that would have such expertise, i.e. Mennonites. Members of this radical fraction of reformatory movement were forced to leave the Netherlands after the Spanish invasion. At the beginning of the 16th century, having their religious freedom guaranteed, they started to settle on the territory of the Republic of Poland.

In Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska the first contract for 12 years was issued by Jan Dulski, starost from Rogoźno, on 2 February 1568 for the village of Mątawy. Settlers arrived also to Michale (before 1565), Osiek (1570), Wielki Lubień (1591), Dragacz (1592), Stwolno Polskie (1593), Mały Lubień (1593), Bratwin (c.a. 1596), Górna Grupa (before 1599), Zajączkowo Wielkie (c.a. 1601), Dolna Grupa (1625), Komórsk Mały (1637), Tryl (1638), Nowe Marzy and Stare Marzy (c.a. 1640), Bzówko and Fletowo (1710)[10].

In exchange for a high pecuniary rent, settlers took land in a long-term tenancy. They were obliged to maintain dikes and drain the soil. They enjoyed religious freedom and had certain economic liberty[11]. They were also independent in court matters.

From the second quarter of the 17th century the Polish kingdom experiences an economic crisis, provoked by many factors. One of them were Swedish wars - many villages and farms were decimated by marches of troops, contributions and epidemics. People were dying of plague and cholera. Therefore, in order to encourage people to return to those lands, the development of colonisation under the Dutch law occurred at the end of 17th and in particular in the 18th century[12]. This colonisation, referred to also as 'Olęder colonisation', included also the Polish and German people.

Peasant farms in the period of the Polish reign were focused on agriculture and animal husbandry. Their main task was to produce plants and only in settlers' villages the breeding of animals was a more independent branch of production. Agricultural lands were divided into elongated stripes and, due to certain heritage practices, the homesteads had the character of large farms[13].

This period was characterised also by the development of industry in the rural areas. Among the most important branches were brewing, forest industry and mills, used for various purposes. A water sawmill is known in Michale as early as in the middle of the 16th century[14]. In the second half of the 17th century there was a mill in Górna Grupa[15]. We know that in 1773 there were four horsemills in Dolna Grupa, used to collect the excess of water[16]. In the middle of the 16th century Bratwin and Stwolno were inhabited by innkeepers and a brewery was active in Wielki Komorsk. At the beginning of the 17th century there were inns in Bzowo and Wielkie Zajączkowo, where beer was delivered from Mątawy. In Bzowo there were two merchants (wood-distillers), as well as a blacksmith and a tailor. Honey was delivered from Bzowski forest, and a brewer in the manor produced malt. We also know that in the 18th century inns existed in Tryle, Mątawy and Wielkie Zajączkowo. Gentry breweries were active in Grupa and Zajączkowo. In Zajączkowo Małe, Zajączkowo Wielkie and in Mątawy there were market stalls where beer was sold[17].

The period under the reign of the Crown was characterised mainly by the development of colonisation. Many villages were founded or relocated. The land along the Vistula, in spite of problems with its exploitation, was well-developed by the new settlers and was among the most fertile soils.


The first partition of Poland took place on 5 August 1772. The Royal Prussia was incorporated into the Prussian monarchy of Frederic II.

The first thing to be realised by the new authority was the change of administration. Polish divisions were abolished and the province of Western Prussia was introduced. On 27 September 1772 in Malbork, an official vassal's oath was sworn by the mayors of Świecie and Nowe and by the delegated village leaders (soltys) of both poviats. Świecie and Nowe poviats were incorporated into the Chojnicki poviat. They covered Bratwin, Dolna Grupa, Górna Grupa, Fletnowo, Małe Stwolno, Wielkie Stwolno, Michale, Nowe Marzy, Stare Marzy, Wąskie Piaski, Dolne Sartowice and Górne Sartowice. Starogard poviat included Wielki Komorsk, Mały Komorsk, Mątawy, Wielkie Zajączkowo, Małe Zajączkowo and Tryl. Chełmiński poviat took Bzowo, Drapacz, Krusze, Osiek, Wielki Lubień and Mały Lubień[18]. Świecie and Nowe had new state land authorities appointed and new tax districts were created. State land courts were founded, covering gentry estates, and, after the reform of 1781, the Starogard poviat was subordinated to the national court in Kwidzyn and Chojnice poviat to the court tribunal in Bydgoszcz[19].

In the period of power takeover, within the poviat boundaries there were 16 royal estates, 9 mills, 41 villages and 21 church estates. Some of the church and royal estates were incorporated into nationalised estates, the so-called 'demesnes', and some were divided into small plots and leased. Gentry estates underwent important changes. The richest among the new owners in this area was Ernst Satorius Schwawenfeld, who bought Sartowice from Marshall of the Permanent Council Ignacy Potocki. The owner of Górna Grupa, Dolna Grupa and Fletnowo was a Prussian official Horn[20].

The new authority introduced compulsory military service. The region of Świecie became a recruitment district for an infantry regiment stationed in Chełmno. Only colonists and some merchants and craftsmen were exempt from the service. People were also charged with different fees and payments. Such charges are known to have been collected in Górna Grupa and Dolna Grupa villages in the years 1775-1783. Eight men were sent for four weeks to build the fortress in Grudziądz[21]. Polish noblemen served in a special cavalry regiment.

On 30 April 1815 a decree was issued establishing a new administrative division. The newly created Świecie poviat included part of the territory of Chojnowo, Starogard and Nowe poviats. This division survived to the end of the partition of Poland. The church organisation of Świecie was also modified. Świecie and Nowe deaneries were incorporated into the Chełmno diocese in 1821. On its territory there were parishes in Wielki Komorsk, Wielki Lubień and Bzowo. In Górna Grupa in the years 1862-1863 a protestant church was erected[22]. In Dolna Grupa and Mątawy Mennonite houses of prayer were built[23].

The beginning of the 19th century was also the period of the most important changes in the peasants' situation. In 1807 an edict abolishing serfdom was issued. Enfranchisement on a wider scale was carried out on the basis of the declaration of 1816. The enfranchisement works were being carried out from the fifties to the eighties of the 19th century. On the territory of Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska all the Protestants were enfranchised in the first half of the century except Mennonites, who were not enfranchised until the sixties[24].

As a result of the enfranchisement the number and size of farms changed. The surface of the existing estates increased and new manorial farms were created. In the third quarter of the 19th century big farms above the 150ha of surface constituted more than 50% of all farms[25]. On the territory of the Świecie poviat 12 such estates were created, including a manorial farm in Michale.

The 19th century witnessed a new stage of agriculture development. It resulted from the developing agrochemical science and roads and railways network. Potatoes, beetroots and clovers were cultivated for the sheep husbandry; at the same time the grains were still grown. The progress in agricultural production was also visible in the increased application of artificial fertilisers, introduction of new ploughs, threshers and mechanical drives[26]. The area of the Vistula Valley was characterised by a number of horned cattle and husbandries larger than in the rest of Pomorze[27]. The development of this husbandry was the effect of a growing slaughter cattle and milk products market in central Prussian provinces. Due to the opening of the railroad from Berlin to Gdańsk in 1852, the poviat acquired communication with new markets[28].

In Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska the agricultural areas above 50ha and between 20ha and 50ha became one, homogenous type. There were almost no big manorial farms and the characteristic of medium farms was the use of wage-labour[29].

Dominant branches of the rural industry in the 19th century were those driven by the newly-introduced cultures. The appearance of the potato in the thirties of the 19th century accelerated the development of distilling. In 1849 there were 16 court distilleries on the territory of the poviat and the estate in Bzowo was one of the first to obtain a vapour machine[30]. In 1881 the Świecie Sugar-Refinery Stock Society was created by the local landowners interested in the culture of sugar beets; the production in the sugar-refinery started in 1883[31]. From the seventies the grain, which still remained an important element of the agriculture, was collected mainly by local mills[32]. There were several windmills known in Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska in the second half of the 19th century, but their share in processing of the local grain remains unknown[33]. The increase of the cattle husbandry manifested itself in the construction of a dairy producing butter in Sartowice in 1854. It was the first such investment in the poviat and one of the first in Pomorze Gdańskie[34]. In this area blacksmiths and butchers still lived, and inns and restaurants as well as bakeries were being opened in local villages[35].

The territory of Prussian partition was not directly exposed to the consequences of the World War I. One of the effects of the war was a decrease of agricultural level. The intensive economy characteristic for this region demanded a lot of financial resources and manpower. Their lack combined with burdensome war charges and tributes had a negative impact on the economic development. In 1918 Polish people's councils were created, becoming the basis for the Polish organisational system. At the end of January 1920 the time of Prussian reign ends with the ceremonial entry of the Polish army.

This period was characterised by a faint development of colonisation networks, the only manifestation of which was the activity of Colonisation Commission. Peasants became enfranchised. In the middle of the 19th century landed estates dominated due to the integration of lands. On the turn of the centuries they were divided into smaller plots, what led to the increase of importance of the medium-sized farms. In agriculture new types of cultures appeared; new methods of running farms and new agricultural tools were introduced.


For many centuries people in Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska constituted a specific melting pot of nations, cultures and religions.

Detailed information on the population of this area dates from the second half of the 19th century. People in this period can be divided into Polish-speaking and German-speaking, including the Catholics and the Protestants: the Lutherans and the Mennonites. This diversity was reflected also in the distribution of land ownership.

The national division in this area starts with the arrival of the Teuton Order, but the largest diversity was provoked by the settling of the Mennonites. Due to the colonisation under the right of hereditary tenancy, taking place at the end of the 17th and during the entire 18th century, also the Germans and the Poles appeared in this area. Polish authorities were favourable to all colonists if only they brought along material benefits.

The Prussian government did not continue this policy. The main goal of this foreign administrator was a widespread Germanisation. The military attitude of Prussia also collided with the pacific attitude of the Mennonites. From 1780 they had to pay 5 000 talars for the maintenance of a cadet corps in Chełmno. In 1801 they were prohibited from purchasing land from people of different religion. In the period of Napoleon wars this oppression was yet increased by the introduction of new contributions. As a result, the Mennonites emigrated to Russia and then America. They often changed creed to Lutheranism and were Germanised. In 1773 their number oscillated between 5 and 26 farmers per village[36]. This number is small, considering the total number of inhabitants in a given locality[37]. The population of Dutch origin decreased systematically from the end of 18th century.

In the 19th century this area was characterised by a constant predominance of German-speaking people over Poles[38]. From the economic point of view they were divided into three national groups. The richest were the landowners - the Mennonites. The second group was constituted by the German Protestants. The last and the poorest group included the Poles that were mainly workers.

The Mennonites, often referred to as peasant nobles, were the owners of the largest estates. The German also constituted a group of wealthy landowners, although many of them had also different occupations. Many of them were also agricultural workers. The smaller number of farm owners is among the Poles. The large majority of them are workers.

On the territory of Nizina the percent of estates surface (above 50ha) belonging to the Germans constituted an overwhelming majority in comparison to the Świecie poviat and the entire Pomorze[39].

It proves that the social structure in Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska was very specific, what is directly reflected in the development of peasant farms.

[1] J. Kondracki Geografia regionalna Polski, Warsaw 1998, p. 88; L. Andrzejewski, Położenie i ogólna charakterystyka środowiska geograficznego [in:] Krajobrazy Ziemi Świeckiej, eds. J. Pajakowski, Świecie 2001, p. 8.
[2] After 1034 this province was separated from the Polish state. Its inhabitants introduced a borough territorial system, where the borough chiefs were subordinated to the authority of one duke. The long-lasting campaigns ended when the entire Pomorze Gdańskie was seized by Bolesław Krzywousty (the Wrymouth) in 1116. Compare: K. Jasiński, Dzieje ziem świeckiej i nowskiej od schyłku XII w. do 1309 r. [in:] Dzieje Świecia nad Wisłą i jego regionu, eds. K. Jasiński, vol. 1, Warszawa-Poznań-Toruń 1979, p. 111.
[3] The parish in Wielki Komórsk existed as early as in 1295 but the parish in Bzowo was created in the beginning of the 14th century, after this land has been seized by the Teutonic Order. The parish in Wielki Lubień has been known since 1398. Compare: W. Szulist, Przeszłość obecnych obszarów diecezji pelplińskiej do 1772 r., vol. 1, Pelplin 2000, p. 43-45.
[4] In 1246 the owner of Wielki Lubień was Nasław, in 1307 the owner of Bratwin was Dziwan and in 1307 the owner of Sartowice was Przesław. Compare: K. Jasieński, op. cit., p. 114.
[5] The territory of Royal Prussia was divided into three voivodeships: Chełmińskie, Malborskie and Pomorskie. Pomorskie voivodeship, the largest one, absorbed former Teutonic Order units on the territory of the left-bank Pomorze. It included eight poviats, with Świecie and Nowe poviats among them. Compare: M. Biskup, A. Tomczak, Mapy województwa pomorskiego w drugiej połowie XVI w., Toruń Scientific Society Yearbook, R. 58, Toruń 1955, no. 1, p. 24; M. Biskup, Ustrój terytorialny i administracyjny, [in:] idem, Prusy Królewskie w latach 1466-1526, [in:] Historia Pomorza, eds. G. Labuda, vol. 2, Poznań 1969, part 1, p. 44; S. Cackowski, M. Grzegorz, W czasach Rzeczpospolitej szlacheckiej, Dzieje Świecia.., vol. 1, p. 251; K. Mikulski, Osadnictwo wiejskie woj. Pomorskiego od poł XVI do końca XVII wieku, Toruń Scientific Society Yearbook, R. 86, Toruń 1994, no. 2, p. 35-37.
[6] The church in Michale is mentioned for the first time in 1398. From the sixties of the 16th century it remains in hands of Protestants, then it is pulled down. Compare: M. Biskup, A. Tomczak,, op. cit., p. 72; Lustracja dóbr królewskich województwa pomorskiego 1565, published by S. Hoszowski, Gdańsk 1961, p. 169; W. Szulist, op. cit., p. 49.
[7] L. Strobbe, Montau-Gruppe, Ein Gedenkblatt an die Besiedelung der Schwetz-Neunburger Niederung durch holländische Mennoniten im Jahre 1568, Graudenz 1918, p. 16.
[8] In the years 1590-1650 the royal secretary Reinhold Heidenstein owned Zajączkowo Duże, Zajączkowo Małe and Mątawy. After his death the property was managed by his wife, Teresa of Konarscy, together with their son, Jan. Compare: A. Mączak, Osadnictwo olęderskie w dzierżawie zajączkowskiej woj. Pomorskiego, "Zapiski Historyczne", vol. 41, Toruń 1976, no. 4, p. 82.
[9] In the middle of the 16th century, the village of Grupa belonged to J. Kopyski, Marzy and Michale to M. Żelisławski and Sartowice to Jackowski and A. Kostka, whereas the manor farm in this village was the property of J. Niewieściński. Compare: M. Biskup, A. Tomczak, op. cit. p. 105-110.
[10] K. Mikulski, Zarys dziejów osadnictwa olęderskiego w Polsce, "Materiały do dziejów kultury i sztuki Bydgoszczy i regionu", Bydgoszcz 1996, no. 1, p. 105-108.
[11] One of the limitations imposed by the lord was the propination law. It limited the production of alcoholic beverages by settlers. Fishing, hunting and the use of pastures were also subject to regulations. Compare: K. Ciesielska, Osadnictwo "olęderskie"..., op. cit., p. 238-240.
[12] Unlike the 16th century colonisation on marshes, this colonisation occupied forest areas and wastelands. Compare: Ibidem, p. 226.
[13] Average size of a peasant farm was two włókas or more; it was larger than the size of a homestead in the Crown. Compare: Z. Ludkiewicz, Osady holenderskie na Nizinie Sartowicko-Nowskiej, Toruń 1934, p. 38; Zarys historii gospodarstwa wiejskiego w Polsce, vol. 2, Warszawa 1964, p. 44; A. Mączak, Prusy w dobie rozkwitu gospodarczego i w okresie walk o zjednoczenie z Koroną [in:] A. Mączak, M. Bogucka, Prusy królewskie i Książęce w latach rozkwitu (1526-1657) [in:] Historia Pomorza, eds. G. Labuda, vol. 2, 1969, part 1, p. 212; S. Cackowski, M. Grzegorz, op. cit., p. 218.
[14] Atlas historyczny Polski. Prusy Królewskie w drugiej połowie XVI wieku. oprac. M. Biskup, Warszawa 1961, map no. 10.
[15] Słownik geograficzny Państwa Polskiego, eds. S. Arnold, Warszawa 1937, p. 1691.
[16] H. Wiebe, Das Siedlunkswerk niederländischer Mennoniten im Weichseltal zwischen Fordon und Weissenberg bis zum Ausgang des 18.Jahrhunderts, Marburg 1952, p. 27.
[17] This list is exhaustive only for lands belonging to the king. In case of gentry and church villages it may be incomplete as it is based only on available literature. Opis królewszczyzn w województwach chełmińskim, pomorskim i malborskim w roku 1664, published by J. Paczkowski, TNT, Fontes 32, Toruń 1938, p. 75-94, 236-256; Lustracja województw malborskiego i chełmińskiego 1565, published by S. Hoszowski, Gdańsk 1961, p. 124-125, 162; Lustracja dóbr królewskich województwa pomorskiego, 1565, op. cit., p. 169-171; Lustracja starostwa grudziądzkiego z roku 1739, published by A. Wolnikowski, Grudziądz 1963, p. 51-52, 57, 169, 171-172; Inwentarz starostwa grudziądzkiego 1603, published by S. Cackowski, Grudziądz 1965, p. 27-33; Lustracja województw Prus Królewskich 1624 z fragmentami lustracji 1615. published by S. Hoszkowski, Gdańsk 1967, p. 45-57, 264-269; Lustracje Prus Królewskich 1765, published by J. Dygdała, vol. 1 Toruń 2005, part 3, p. 10-11; Lustracje Prus Królewskich 1765, published by J. Dygdała, vol. 1, Toruń 2005, part 2, p. 148, 154-157.
[18] H. Maercker, Eine polnische Starostei und ein preussischer Landrathkreis. Geschichte des Schwetzer Kreises 1466-1873, "Zeitschrift des Westpreussischen Geschichtvereins", H. 17-19, Danzig 1886-1888, p. 164, 183-184, 193, 206-209, 226, 237-238, 251, 262-264, 267-268, 271, 295-296, 311-318, 338, 343.
[19] H. Maercker, op. cit., p. 71; S. Cackowski, Początki rządów pruskich [in:] Dzieje Świecia..., vol. 1, op. cit., p. 264.
[20] Ibidem, p. 268.
[21] H. Maercker, op. cit., p. 73; S. Cackowski, op. cit., p. 275.
[22] H. Maercker, op. cit., p. 207.
[23] The house of prayer in Dolna Grupa was built in 1776. The church in Mątawy was erected in the years 1896-98 in place of an earlier church. Compare: L. Strobbe, op. cit., p. 16-24.
[24] Z. Ludkiewicz, op. cit., p. 34
[25] W. Stępiński, Wieś pomorska w drugiej połowie XIX i na początku XX wieku. Stosunki społeczno-gospodarcze, [in:] Historia Pomorza, eds. S. Salmonowicz, vol. IV, Toruń 2000, part 1, p. 137-149.
[26] Zarys historii gospodarstwa..., vol. II, op. cit., p. 399-508; B. Wachowiak, Rozwój rolnictwa pomorskiego w dobie uwłaszczenia. Gospodarka i społeczeństwo (wieś i miasto) [in:] Historia Pomorza, eds. G. Labuda, vol. III, Poznań 1993, part 1, p. 276-279.
[27] K. Wajda, Wieś pomorska na przełomie XIX i XX w. Poznań 1964, p. 77.
[28] K. Wajda, Świecie i powiat świecki w czasach zaboru pruskiego 1815-1919 [in:] Dzieje..., vol. 1, op. cit., p. 301; J. Pawłowski, 150 lat kolei w regonie kujawsko-pomorskim 1851-2001, Bydgoszcz 2001, p. 7-8.
[29] In 1931 medium agricultural farms in Nizina constituted almost 80% of the surface. Compare: Por. Z. Ludkiewicz, op. cit., p. 90.
[30] K. Wajda, Świecie i powiat świecki..., op. cit., p. 292.
[31] Ibidem, p. 312.
[32] At first the grain from the Świecie poviat was transported to Gdańsk and then exported to foreign markets. Compare: Ibidem, p. 298.
[33] Those windmills were located in Bratwin, Górna Grupa, Mały Komorsk, Mątawy, Wielki Lubień, Zajączkowo. Compare: Map from special collection of the City and Village Public Library in Bydgoszcz, ref. no. C III 205; Some information can also be found in the archival documents mentioning two windmills in Górna Grupa and one in Nowe, Mały Lubień and Komórsk. Compare: State Archives in Bydgoszcz, Documents of the Świecie starosty, ref.. 184, 185, 186, 192, 203.
[34] K. Wajda, Świecie i powiat świecki..., op. cit., p. 302.
[35] Z. Ludkiewicz, op. cit., p. 77.
[36] H. Wiebe, op. cit., p. 77-80.
[37] H. Maercker lists the number of inhabitants in different villages. From c.a. 50 people in Stare Marzy and Mały Lubień to 400 in Mątawy. Compare: H. Maercker, op. cit., p. 164, 183-184, 193, 206-209, 226, 237-238, 251, 262-264, 267-268, 271, 295-296, 311-318, 338, 343.
[38] Of course it is not relevant to all the villages in Nizina Sartowicko-Nowska. The Poles constituted the majority in Bzowo or Komórsk. Larger concentrations of the Mennonites were in Dolna Grupa, Mątawy or Wielki Lubień. Compare: Gemeindelexikon. Provinz Westpreussen, Berlin 1908, p. 121-122; Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej, vol. XI, Warsaw 1926; K. Wajda, Świecie i powiat świecki..., op. cit., p. 324-325.
[39] The percent share of the surface of German ownership in Nizina amounted to 88%. In the poviat it reached only 10% and in Pomorze 12%. Those data are relevant for 1921. Z. Ludkiewicz, op. cit., p. 59.

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